Hey Thanks for checking out my project, or discovering it organically!
Whats the weather?
This page shows the output of my outdoor box DHT22 Temperature sensor, powered by two 100w solar panels it can sometimes run out of power, especially late at night on miserable days. The data is updated in 15-minute intervals based on three samples. The data is monitored and transmitted from an esp8266 to my web-server, which is then logged in a google spreadsheet and then published here, only the last 500 entries are kept in the chart, which makes the whole chart 15 hours long.
The data on this chart can be better viewed here -> Link
The data on this chart can be better viewed here -> Link
If you would like historical data, please contact me.
Many Businesses use IT to manage their accounts, documents and decision-making. It is, therefore important that Access Control be implemented in Organisations to prevent unwanted modification or prying eyes from being able to commit computer crimes, such as the ones outlined in the Computer Misuse Act. Using Access Control can prevent these people and operational staff from being able to modify information that otherwise is not their place to edit. Some common implementations of Access Control could be limiting the information available to a customer about Transaction Processing Systems or Management Information Systems not allowing Managers access to manufacturer prices.
Access Control in Strategic, Tactical and Operational Management
In order to implement these features a common method of maintaining strict control is through a permissions model, where it is outlined to the computer what permissions a login has access to, such that they are able (like a file system) to edit, read or write a file or piece of information. Here are some common examples of Access Control;
- A Supermarket Employee is not able to alter the price of products.
- A Manager is not able to create new users for a MIS (Management Information System).
- A DSS (Decision Support System) is not able to commit to a higher level of privilege without presenting documentation proving that that decision is possible, a good example of this could be a bank requiring an account number to confirm that the account is active before allowing the employee to make changes or a support agent requiring a pin from a customer before being allowed to view the customers details.
The three levels of control is a common (but not de-facto) model for systems management, however often these levels of tasks can become obscured by other factors. These tasks can often be divided up among IT departments in formal organisations, such as ‘Ops’ and ‘Licencing’. The use of Access Control can be used to coordinate effective ICT teamwork on large projects and in other departments, such as accounting.
When you signup for a website. You enter your information (or data). You don’t always get it right and could miss a box or spell your own credentials wrong (garbage), this data in an ICT system is very important that it is minimised. There are numerous ways that this can be accomplished.
Data must be correct
In order to have an accurate IT solution, your data must be correct, otherwise users may find your solution hard to use. It is important that you minimise GIGO through thorough data validation.
Garbage in Garbage Out
When you enter data into an ICT system it is vital that your data is accurate, valid, and up to date. This can be accomplished though input validation. When you enter data, it should be of top quality it is vital that GIGO does not occur. GIGO is garbage in, garbage out, and refers colloquially to the fact that whatever you put into an ICT system, such as garbage, is what you will get out. This is because ICT systems are designed to preform the task that they were designed for, and doing tasks that aren’t what they are supposed to do, will inevitably produce garbage as computers work by logical process. An example of this would be putting an email address in a phone number box on contact information, and when ringing someone, the call does not connect, because it cannot ring an email address.
To stop this sort of thing from happening you must read instructions, follow tutorials and understand the implications of what you are doing, otherwise you could corrupt your data.
Data should be accurate, up-to-date, reliable, complete, correct, designed for purpose and when entered, it should be paramount that it follows these principles, otherwise your it solution could produce frustrating results that the user does not expect. Make sure your data is accourate by forcing users to enter it correctly.
When data is processed there are multiple methods of processing data, there are several types that all have individual Advantages and Disadvantages.
Batch, Interactive and Transaction Processing
|Batch Processing is when data is processed in ‘batches’ (groups)|
- Batches mean that the process does not require human interaction, this allows the system to be automated and means that it can be left running for multiple sessions at a time, that could potentially last a long time, This type of process can also allow for custom processing ‘jobs’. Which means that the data can be suited to fit the needs of the user, for example, a bank wants to process a large quantity of bank statements, with a temporary notice at the top, they would be able to customize the ‘job’ to be processed with the new notice.
- They can take a long time to process and may require multiple hours to complete, they may also require multiple retrys and query’s, so being able to compute data in batches means that all the necessary data can be consolidated for the job.
- Batch processing also means that the data can be run at low points when there is little load on the system.
- Using ‘big data’ can take a lot of computing power and can take a long time, and could still process GIGO. (garbage in, garbage out) Stopping batches may cause the system to corrupt the data involved and the system it is using may exhaust the resources of the machine, causing the process to fail.
- Batch processing could include anomalies that may not have been accounted for, for example when someone had filled out their name on a form as ‘Mr Davies’ when the form only required ‘Davies’, the result could be that a letter that has been batch produced ‘Dear, Mr Mr Davies’.
- The Batch process could mean that users receive incorrect information until their data has been processed.
- Data must be accurate to prevent GIGO.
Examples : Mail merge, Bank Statements, Mass Emails, Game World ‘chunks’, Video Rendering.
|Interactive processing is when a system performs processes as it is being used.|
- When playing games, only the crucial information that requires being rendered or physics that need applying to objects need to be processed, allowing for a smoother gameplay. This may also be considered a disadvantage as it can break the immersion of the game when textures are rendered poorly or objects do not have their expected physics, such as objects that do not fall to the ground, or signs do not render their text fully and appear blurred.
- Websites can check that reservations are not double booked as users place their orders, usernames can be checked for availability as they sign up, emails can be parsed for validity.
- Websites such as dominoes can start to create an order, before the customer has even completed their order.
- Video Viewers can set the quality of a video, or it can be done automatically, while the video is playing.
- Interactive processing cannot take place on very taxing processes that require a lot of computation.
- Interactive processing may not be possible until the process is completed
- Interactive processing may mean that data could become corrupted, such as pausing a rendering video or deleting data that is open by other processes in place.
- Online Shopping could offer discounted prices are out of date as the offer has expired, but was already added to the customers basket.
Examples : Online Shopping, Video Rendering, Video Live Streams, Booking Seats.
| Transaction processing is mode one at a time.|
- Transaction processing is fast and efficient, and the data can be updated quickly and securely, booking a seat on a flight and in a cinema ensures that your seat is not double booked.
- Effective for high traffic websites and concerts where there is high demand for a product.
- Transaction processing means that customers do not withdraw funds they don’t own.
- Transaction processing often means that the system can prevent two events happening at the same time.
- Transaction Processing requires the transaction to be completed before it is accepted, therefore there can sometimes be considerable wait times before a transaction is complete.
- Transaction processing means that the system must always be available during operating hours, therefore when a system goes down, there can sometimes be great repercussions.
Examples : Banking, Stock Control Systems, Booking Systems.
The use case for each type can vary, however most have set types that work best for the solution, so it is important to know which one is bet for a solution, or you could run into issues.
Data itself is valueless, however when provided with context, it becomes valued, a database contains lots of raw information, and therefore it would be extremely hard to interpret anything from it, for example here is a table from a database:
Without context, its information means nothing, it could mean anything. It is abstract, however when combined with some context, it becomes useful and can be useful.
| Andrew has completed his homework||Yes|
|Andrew’s school house color||Blue|
|Andrew’s last test score||5|
|Andrew’s highest test score||100|
|Andrew is real|| No|
Now that we have provided this table with some context, it makes more sense, this is the difference between information and data. Information is data that has been given meaning. Although it is odd to keep data about a fictional Andrew, it is funny to think that within this website, data is stored that will contain Andrew’s table, and only when this page is read will it make sense what the purpose of this information is for.
- Data is anything from numbers and letters to characters or metadata, it may be inputted into a computer through a form or another computer system.
- Information is data with context, it makes sense. It becomes information once you are familiar with what it is referring to.
An ICT System is something that provides information, automation, data or computation to a user. Some examples of an ICT System are:
- A School Website.
- A video rendering server.
- An online picture editor or gif creator.
- A fire alarm system.
- A sprinkler system.
ICT is visible everywhere and can be extremely beneficial to society, you reading this website is the result of hundreds of ICT systems being monitored by individuals called System Administrators or Sysadmin for short. Short of the simple systems that keep the website running, there is also the bigger picture systems, such as the time management servers, update servers for the OS of the website and your own computer, Record and bill systems checking that the server is paid for, Website analysis systems indexing this website on Google and other search engines, Security and Antivirus checking your router for bad traffic and even ISP systems, ensuring that your and this end of the connection is working, and if any of those systems were to fail, catastrophic consequences could occur.