Common ICT Systems in Industry

Many Common ICT Systems have different functions, of which they have names. All businesses, schools and organisations will often require some computer system, even registration or time management. However often these systems are financially concerned and for that reason are often automated.

common ict systems infobox

Legacy Systems

Maintain the older applications for customers who still use them. They are maintained until they become depreciated and service systems that are older or out of date. It is likely that this system has been used for a long time and it would be impractical to upgrade without replacing it being expensive, disruptive or not worthwhile. Financial systems may keep their systems records for significantly longer amounts of time than other departments to monitor progress etc.

Back office systems

Maintain the business itself. They are situated elsewhere from the front-facing aspects of a business and whose role it is to keep the business working effectively. A back-office system resides in a ‘back office’ and as such doesn’t usually interact with any customers. The goal of back office systems like finance and IT is to service the other departments of the business and keep the business running effectively.

Day-to-day working systems

A transaction processing system

A system that manages and maintains the records of transactions and payments, they crucially have to be up-to-date at any time. Often on large-scale systems, this can be difficult to keep accurate, so caching is used.

Document approval workflow

A Document approval workflow system ensures that a document is suitably acceptable to carry out a procedure by going through the necessary stages from person to person, the way that the workflow works to ensure that the document is compliant with any standards or higher-up individuals before the aim of the document is carried out.

Document management system

A Document Management System allows for the distribution and long-term archiving of documents that are to be held long term.

Management Information Systems

A MIS allows a manager of a department to oversee and manage the use of a system without having to obtain the information manually, it collects and maintains the data from systems in order to allow the manager to perform a task, It also allows them to see side-by-side a comparison based on previous data for example.

Enterprise Resource Planning Systems

Enterprise management tools allow businesses to effectively coordinate staff and assets to complete business projects and task to a deadline and manage day to day running of systems such as a Gantt chart. Often enterprise systems can encompass many business operations from stock management to re-ordering, transit, delivery, management and season planning. Some business locations may be run completely centrally where business operations of a franchise are handled entirely by the main offices.

Customer Relationship Management Systems

Customer relationship management systems allow businesses to track the status of a customer and their relationship with the company, similar to a ticket system it allows them to identify when they need to contact a customer about an expiring contract or maintain effective communication between an employee and customer.

Decision Support Systems

Decision support systems guide employees on how to handle a task based on set data that they have to evaluate to reach a conclusion, sometimes these solutions can be convolutional so a decision support system allows them to make the right choice.

E-commerce systems

An e-commerce system allows them to track the online progress of an online sale and provide a front-end shop for customers to browse and a back end stock management and sometimes other facilities like AB testing.

Management in the Scale of Organisations

The IT of an organisation can also depend on the scale of its operations. Traditionally licences for software are based on the number of staff using the systems, even small organisations can have 50 (or more) staff members and still be classed as a small organisation. Generally, smaller organisations will have an informal structure and confined to a single site. Whereas Medium organisations may have a more formal procedure which adopts policies and organisational structure to ensure that systems are maintained and compliance is met where necessary. A large scale organisation may have IT as one of the core responsibilities of the organisation as it is likely that some locations may be off site or long distance where remote access is vital. They may also rely heavily on WANs and expanded LANs to ensure that their systems are accessible across the sites available.

Management Styles

Because large and medium size organisations need a leader or manager, they may adopt one of four management styles, the use of these management styles allows the business to maintain contact with its employees.

  • Autocratic, where a clear authority is established and decisions are only to be made by strategic or tactical individuals, operational staff may have relatively little power compared to the other management styles however, it may mean that staff may not feel demotivated if something goes wrong because they are not as involved in the organisation compared to the other leadership styles.
  • Democratic, is where management is taken by ‘vote’ of opinion and is useful when undertaking projects and allows people with specialisms such as networking and database design to cast their opinions and thoughts on a project.
  • Laissez-faire, is where management takes a smaller role and workers are expected to perform as they are needed and let their own ideas and creativity work to the task they are needed for, this should produce more individual work and is not always ideal for companies that do not require more than simple repetitive tasks.
  • Paternalistic, is where management will use a paternal view of management and only get involved when needed or when feedback is requested, this has the added advantage of giving the workers both freedom and encouragement, but when help is needed they aren’t far away. Additionally, this gives management the ability to delegate tasks and establish authority without appearing autocratic.

 

The management of an organisation can greatly depend on the scale and urgency of the work involved in managing IT. Organisations that also have to follow a lot of compliance, such as government offices must also maintain those constraints effectively.

Characteristics of an Entrepreneur

An entrepreneur must have a certain set of skills in order to be successful and lead them to a more prosperous life.

Some positive characteristics can be just important as some negative ones, without them they may be unbalanced and blinded by the possibility of success.

Do what you enjoy

It’s fundamental that you are happy with what you do or a lack of motivation can be reflected over your work. Don’t accept jobs that are too demanding as they can lead to a lack of motivation.

Be motivated and enjoy what you do

Without motivation and drive you are bound to fail, without drive, you won’t get anywhere and could struggle financially because of a lower clientele reflected in your work

Be good at what you do

Take pride in your work and make the best of a bad job at the worst of times, keep motivated and anticipate failure. Failure to understand may lead to a possible loss of clientele and sales, not being able to provide for your clients is unprofessional.

Be charismatic

In order to win clients a leader must be able to negotiate, delegate and understand clients. Otherwise they may lose possible clients. Someone who is unable to woo clients may struggle and be left behind, leading to a loss of sales and a damaged reputation.

Be a leader

An entrepreneur must be able to delegate and lead a group to success as going alone could lead to failure. If an entrepreneur cannot lead their team, they may struggle to produce what is required.

Be a problem solver

An entrepreneur must be able to solve problems, anticipate issues and look out for possible obstacles, without the foresight required be an entrepreneur. Reluctance may be your downfall and lead to failure.

 

Six things ICT Provide

ICT is used globally, and has multiple points that are useful to it.

 

Fast Repetitive Processing allows companies and individuals to process large quantities of data at once and quickly, repetitive tasks allow for people to make personalised and tailored reports and information, things like bank statements can be processed rapidly overnight at low points in the day. New technologies mean that they can perform complex calculations quickly and effectively.

 

Vast Storage Capacity means that IT systems can store larger quantities of data in smaller form factor, large businesses are able to store large quantities of data and programs are able to actively process larger quantities of data such as virtual machines or hypervisors. Additionally It has allowed for free services to store files for free, using ad supported media.

 

Improved search facilities have allowed for people to lookup information and files instantly and obtain key information effectively, such as facts and simple calculations through Google and other search engines. Additionally It has allowed for data to be collated together, such as viewing reports and files over a period of time or created by a specific editor. Doctors, for example are able to lookup a patient’s details on a computer instantly, rather than go through paperwork and personal information, they are only able to see what is necessary, this allows for additional security and customisation with reports.

 

Improved presentation of data allows for tailored reports, statistics, graphs and files. Customisation has allowed business to tailor their products and software to their customers based off the data obtained. for example, a coffee chain is able to gain knowledge of their best selling drinks based off sales data and survey information, additionally they are able to combine independent data that would otherwise not be combined, such as weather and sales. It also means that it is easy to understand for someone who does not have a great understanding of a topic.

 

Improved accessibility means that information is available in a variety of formats and has allowed for people to access their data anywhere in the world, previously data was only accessible at one location, but by connecting to the vast internet, consumers as well as businesses are able to take advantage of fast connections and information in order to overcome logistical problems such as storage capacity and even uptime through online hosting, additionally people are able to utilise single peripherals on multiple devices, such as a printer or scanner. Additionally programs are easier to use and accessible to people with special needs.

 

Improved security has meant that files and programs are safe from third party transit prying eyes and nefarious use, data can be almost impossible to access without the right information and can be stored in ways that mean that it is not possible to decrypt remotely. It has also allowed for networks to be open to multiple tiers of people, from guests to teachers accessibility is only available to those who need it and useability is not compromised.