Influences for Supply and Demand

Businesses work on a complex demand and supply based method of producing products and services.

  • Supply is the quantity of a good or service that a producer is offering to supply into the market
  • Demand is the quantity that the customers are willing to buy at a given price over a given period of time
  • External factors, such as income or environmental or ethical change may mean that a product is no longer viable, smoking for example is no longer as profitable as it was as people no longer smoke as much as they used to. Influences may be out of the businesses control.

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You may notice demand is present in the what influences the demand section, while it would not be a good idea to present it in an exam, I thought it worth including at the bottom as it technically does effect demand, as people may buy a product to own one before everyone else. Promotion is also a very broad term, this also encompasses things like fasion events, tastes and Economy also includes factors such as income.

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Supply and Demand Competition

Supply of a product can generally be negated, as long as there is demand there will usually be a supply. Some mass markets, such as commodity items are often very unchanging and can have extremely thin margins to drive out competitors, this is known as a price war and can sometimes be more destructive to business profits than good as the product becomes devalued by the low price and people become unwilling to pay for the prices needed to pay for the product, however, this can sometimes improve the rate of the moving average as it forces businesses to increase their prices, usually at the same time to a higher-than-original value.That is one example of a price strategy (price war).

If there is no demand for a product, then there most likely will be no supply, as producers are not interested in creating a product that will not sell.

Demand and Supply Graph

A Supply and Demand graph shows the relationship between the two, the graph can be altered by shifting either to the left or right, depending on whether you want to increase or decrease either, just remember that,

Left is less…

So by shifting either to the left, you are decreasing them. A handy tool for showing equilibrium.

 

How Customers Associate Quality with a Brand

brand qualityWithin any business there are multiple factors that a customer can imprint on to recognise a brand and associate with quality. Businesses can use the customers intuition to their advantage, targeting on the key aspects of a quality product in order to maximise return. Here is a list of the common points a business can tailor in order to maximise their revenue;

 

trusty tea co allows product association quality brand reputation

  • Profitability, Businesses must decide how much profit each product or service should undertake, whether it be a large return or a small one. Customers may be willing to buy a product purely on its premium price point.
  • Customer Service, Businesses may wish to place the quality of their product on par with the quality of its customer service. Poor customer service could reflect badly on a quality product and vice versa.
  • Competitiveness, Businesses may wish to use pricing in order to undercut the cost of its competitors. Businesses may also want to take on new locations and footfall in order to maximise profitability.
  • Supply Chain, Business may cut costs and use cheaper suppliers, however unethical or environmental considerations could be overlooked and come back to haunt businesses later.
  • Reliability, A product that is unreliable or prone to failure may mean that customers look elsewhere for new products, defined obsolescence could damage the perceived quality of the product as well, If it were to fail after a certain time because of a weak part, customers may feel frustrated having to buy new ones.
  • Brand Image, For some customers a brand could be vital to what product they purchase, If a brand is damaged, it could affect the sales of businesses massively. Some businesses may also struggle to maintain a positive reputation if the business specialises in cheap services, such as transport or hotels and may not be too affected by bad publicity as the cheap price point means the demand for the product does not change (it is inelastic).
  • Quality Control could also mean that products are of a constant high quality and should in tern allow a business to work effectively on producing high quality products for the consumer, who will hopefully repeat purchase. Kaizen and Total Quality Management can allow a business to excel at creating a quality product that is lean and high quality as it forces the product to be a standard that the business expects and what the customer wants.
  • Brand Awareness, A customer who does not know a product exist may not buy it, additionally any customer who recognises a product may choose to buy it over a generic product because of it. Advertising and promotion can artificially create the connection between the customer and the brand of trust and safety in a product, that this is the product they should buy.

Simulating a phone combination brute force

 

If a malicious individual were to steal your android or iPhone, plug in a device to emulate a keyboard and have it test every single pass code possible, it would take a while, using the following tutorial, you can calculate the time It would take to do so.

Screenshot_2016-03-02-16-46-31

 

 

 

 

 

 

Firstly, you need to grab Python 3.4.3, or you can probably use the version you have installed. Next we need to create the code.

Firstly we need to import datetime to convert the guesses into time it would have taken, we also need to write down what the combination is, for this example, it will be ‘3502’.

import datetime
combination = "3502"

print (" [Info] Starting")

Then we need to add a guess and how long has passed while performing a guess, as it takes time to enter the numbers into the device, we will simulate this as well as 1 second.

guess = "0000"
seconds_taken = 0

def addsec(seconds):
     global seconds_taken
     seconds_taken = seconds_taken + seconds

I could have added the seconds section into the code directly, but adding as a def allowed me to edit it if I needed to, now that we have done the basics, we need to start guessing, there are 10,000 possible combinations, thats combinations such as 0001, this is problematic as leading zeros will not be carried over into integers in python, we can fix this using .zfill(4), which will add the leading zeros back into the guess, allowing us to compare it with the actual combination. This also means that we can convert the guess back into an integer in order to see if we have exceeded our limit. We also need to add a second for a combination guess.

def addsec(seconds):
     global seconds_taken
     seconds_taken = seconds_taken + seconds

while int(guess) <= 9999:
     addsec(1)
     if guess.zfill(4) == combination:
          print (" [Alert] Combination guessed, combination is " + combination)
          break
     else:
          guess = str(int(guess) + 1)
          print (" [Info] Guess is now '" + str(guess).zfill(4) + "'")

Finally, we need to convert our result into a time, we can do this by dividing our seconds_taken (which is coincidentally the number of guesses if you add one for ‘0000’) by 5 (because it takes 5 guesses before a penalty), and then tuning that into an integer, rounding down and then multiplying by 300, to simulate 5 minutes lockout. then we combine penalties_incurred and seconds_taken, to get the time it takes to guess the combination (in seconds), then use that to convert into an hh:mm:ss format, using datetime.

penalties_incurred = int(seconds_taken / 5) * 300
time_taken = (str(datetime.timedelta(seconds=(penalties_incurred + seconds_taken))))
print (" [Finished] The combination would have taken '" + time_taken + "' to brute force. (h:m:s)")
print (" [Finished] You would have had to wait for " + str(int(penalties_incurred / 300)) + " lockout session(s)" )

What have we learnt?

  • There are 10,000 possible combinations.
  • For my combination, it would take 6 days, 30 minutes to guess.

On an Android Device,

  • It would take over 2,000 lockouts to guess every combination.
  • It would take 7 days, 1 hour, 26 minutes and 40 seconds to guess every combination.
  • It would take 8 hours, 28 minutes and 20 seconds to guess 500 combinations.
  • It would take 50 minutes and 50 seconds to guess 50 combinations, with 10 lockouts.

On an Apple Device*,

  • It would take 1666 lockouts to guess every combination.
  • It would take 5 days, 21 hours, 36 minutes and 40 seconds to guess every combination.
  • It would take 7 hours, 3 mintes and 20 seconds to guess 500 combinations.
  • It would take 40 minutes and 50 seconds to guess 50 combinations, with 8 lockouts.

*However, apple wipes their devices after 11 bad combinations, to avoid this, the combinations would have to be entered correctly after the sixth try in order for the apple device estimates to be correct, which defeats the purpose of brute forcing, for that reason apple devices are much more secure, however there is potential for data to be deleted accidentally.

This simulation is flawed because,

  • It does not take into account combinations greater than 4 digits
  • It does not take into account cumulative waiting times
  • It does not take into account device combinations that don’t involve numbers
  • You could increase the number of digits allowed in order to calculate your combination, for example if it was 67890, replacing the 13th line with 99999 would allow you to calculate it.

Here is the full code extract,

Bukkit has been given a DMCA takedown by Wesley Wolfie. The NEXT steps.

It is currently well known that bukkit has been given a dmca request by Wesley Wolfie, but now that that has happened, we now need to rebuild!

So here is whats happening, the folks over from bukkit are now working on a new modding api, called sponge! currently ‘Sponge will start with Minecraft 1.8, with Vanilla Client Support on Forge.’

Old plugins that were written on bukkit will most likely have to be removed, unless someone finds a way to make them compatible with sponge.

Here is a large extract of what they plan to do.

Our ultimate goal is to create a modding API that is easy to use for owners of small servers for friends and family, owners of large servers, and everyone in between. In addition, we also plan to permit client modding.

  • Sponge mods should work across several different Minecraft versions without needing an update from the developer, which means that you don’t have to worry about all your mods breaking between each new major release of Minecraft (1.6, 1.7, 1.8, etc.).
  • Sponge will support official interoperability with Forge so you can use both Sponge mods and Forge mods together. We are working directly with the Forge team.
  • While Sponge will not be directly supporting Bukkit, community projects have been started that aim to provide complete support for existing Bukkit plugins on top of Sponge

the whole plan can be found here

 

Good Luck to you all

 

EDIT, also check out PROJECT RAINBOW, they currently have downloads and plugins up for grabs.

How to setup MMS on O2 pay & Go Go Go

I recently had a problem with O2’s pay and go go go sim, where I was unable to send MMS or group text people, after a couple conversations with O2 chat and some form help, I was able to finally get it working, perviously when I tried to send an MMS or Photo, I would get the message ‘MMS blocked by Carrier’. But this solution should fix it for you, as it did for me.

The first issue I had was that my apn settings were wrong, here is how to fix it, your settings may vary, but essentially you need to get to your ‘APN’ settings menu in your phone, usually it is
Settings > General > Mobile Data > Mobile Data Network > APN
and for Iphones it is
Settings > Mobile > Mobile Data Network > APN
and for me it was ‘Quick settings’, then tap and hold ‘Mobile Data’ and select ‘Access Point Names’, see below.(I have a HTC Desire 610, but this may apply to most HTC’s)

Screenshot_2014-10-05-19-07-04
Tap and Hold ‘Mobile Data’
Screenshot_2014-10-05-19-31-07
Select ‘Access Point Names’
Screenshot_2014-10-05-19-08-34
Do as necessary

 

Now you have located the menu, you should probably reset your ‘APN’ settings to default, you can do this by pressing the menu button and pressing ‘reset to default’, this stap is technically optional and may straight out fix your problem, so it may be a good idea to check it out. Once you have done that, you should have the following APN; (these may vary from phone to phone)

Name – ‘O2 Pay & Go’
APN – ‘payandgo.o2.co.uk’
Proxy – Not Set
Port – Not Set
Username – ‘payandgo’
Password – ‘password’
Server – Not Set
MMSC – ‘http://mmsc.mms.o2.co.uk:8002’
MMS Proxy – ‘82.132.254.1’
MMS Port – ‘8080’
MMS Protocol – ‘WAP 2.0’ (2.0)
MCC – ‘234’
MNC – ’10’
Authentication type – Not Set
APN type – ‘default,hipri,dun,supl,mms’
Bearer – Unspecified

Now save.

(Settings may vary from phone to phone, so make educated decisions if you are stuck, or Google your specific phone settings for O2 (Or your Carrier).)

You now need to add a new APN for MMS, note that you should have 2 APN’s one for Calls, texts and Internet, and one for MMS. Give it the following settings;

Name – ‘O2 MMS’
APN – ‘wap.o2.co.uk’
Proxy – ‘http://wap.o2.co.uk’
Port – ‘9201’
Username – ‘o2wap’
Password – ‘password’
Server – ‘http://mmsc.mms.o2.co.uk:8002’
MMSC – ‘http://mmsc.mms.o2.co.uk:8002’
MMS Proxy – ‘193.113.200.195’
MMS Port – ‘8080’
MMS Protocol – ‘WAP 2.0’ (2.0)
MCC – ‘234’
MNC – ’10’
Authentication type – Not Set
APN type – ‘mms’
Bearer – Unspecified

Now save.

(Settings may vary from phone to phone, so make educated decisions if you are stuck, or Google your specific phone settings for O2 (Or your Carrier).)

You should now have two APN’s and should now be able to use calls,texts,internet and mms (as well as group messaging and photo sending) on O2 Pay and Go Go Go.

Bigger, Better, Faster, Stronger?

Were back! and were faster than ever, well over 140% faster to be precise, out with Xampp on windows, in with Ubuntu Webmin!

Wait… Webmin isn’t that taboo? Well, yes, it is but its got loads of features and is really easy to do otherwise time consuming tasks that could take minutes and turn that into a couple of seconds, for example, adding a virtual host to apache2 would require FTP and a bit of nifty .txt editing, but with webmin, its a couple of clicks away, practical in the long run, but it does have it’s drawbacks.

Webmin with Bootstrap 3 theme.

 

Plus webmin is easy to use and quick to configure, so Ill be doing a couple tutorials on that soon enough!