Common AS-Level Business Studies Equations

Here is a list of routinely forgotten equations for Business Studies, make sure to memorise them.

Equations


Total Contribution =

Total revenue - Total variable cost

Contribution per unit =

Selling price per unit - Variable cost per unit

or (for total contribution)

Contribution per unit x Number of units sold

Profit =

Total contribution - Fixed cost

Break-even Output =

Fixed cost / Contribution per unit


 What do they mean?

  • Contribution is useful for a business to be responsible for a range of products, it allows them to calculate how much money they make on a sale.
  • The Break-even charts (and equation) is a tool that allows you to show total costs at all possible levels of output or demand from zero to maximum capacity. Break-even is not given in money, and should be the amount of units sold.
  • Profit is money made, not taking anything into account other than fixed and variable cost.
  • Contribution per unit, is just total contribution per unit. So to get it, divide by the amount you sell of a product (or use the other formula). Don’t confuse this with break-even.

When calculating using these equations it is important to consider external factors. Such as extrapolation or economic variables that could be changing the data. However you may not get questions like this in the exam.

Sometimes four mark questions may ask about productivity. For example, these questions do not want you to describe the formula, they may want you to state it. But make sure to stick to  the ‘because, leading to, therefore and such as’ structure. Otherwise you may not be answering the question correctly.

Break-even output is easier to consider it as the fixed costs divided by the contribution per unit, like so. If it costs $500 in rent, and you get $1 for every candy bar you sell, you need to sell 500 candy bars. Because $500 / $1 is 500 not $500.

Remember that break-even output is never given as money. Remember also to consider confidence intervals may mean that the data given is not accurate, as well as the accuracy of the data you have received.


comments hear-say equationsRemember that the information you have may be hear-say and not 100% accurate, things may change. The variable cost of items may raise, or lower. Total contribution may not be accurate if the business sells multiple products at different prices. Make sure to base your equations off all of the information available, don’t take short-cuts.

"Revenue is vanity, Profit is sanity, Cash is King!"

Remember, its not percentages or ratios that businesses put in the bank, it’s dollars. credit. So think about how valuable the data you have actually is. Make sure you understand the numbers! cash flow shortages can be negated with better trade terms. Having predictable cash flow is preferable, so make sure that you mention it.

Unlocking BOOTLOADER on HTC devices

When rooting or developing apps on your android, you may need access to the bootloader to install custom roms or recovery menus of your HTC, this is relatively simple compared to some phones, HTC comes with it’s bootloader locked, so in order to unlock it, HTC has a special and useful website, HTCDEV.COM to unlock bootloader and give you a key to unlock it. Unfortunately when unlocking bootloader, you also ‘factory’ reset your phone, so make sure to take a backup using an app, or HTC’s own backup service.

Before I begin I should note that unlocking bootloader on your HTC, or indeed other phones, tends to void the warranty, so follow at your own risk, but I myself was completely able to install SuperSU and TWRP Recovery, without problems.

First, you are going to need a few things,

  • HTC’s Sync Manager, for HTC’s drivers for your phone, this also may come in handy for backing up any photos or songs that you may have on the device.
  • A HTC phone with cable and a computer that will allow you to install programs. (It should also have a USB port)
  • An SD card, When you install your new rom, root manager, or both, you are gonna need somewhere to put it for your phone to load it (NOT needed for unlocking just the bootloader)
  • Android SDK tools, When using the fastboot binarys, it is required that these tools be installed, particularly adb.exe and two dll’s AdbWinApi.dll and AdbWinUsbApi.dll . these are found in the \platform-tools directory of your SDK.
  • Fastboot binarys, (they will be explained later)
  • A folder to collect all your files.
  • USB debugging enabled on your device, this is usually Settings > Applications > Development > USB debugging for HTC’s.
  • Unplug your HTC from a pc If it is plugged in, make sure to have a considerable amount of charge, such as 50%.

 

  1. First, your going to need an account on HTCDEV.COM, Beware not to use a throwaway account as they will email you your unlock code as an attachment!
  2. Now you need to download the essentials, HTC Sync , Download SDK tools (Scroll down to Other Download Options > SDK tools only ) and java if you do not already have that installed (if no make sure to install this first) Install all of these programs and move to the next instruction.
  3. Now you have them installed. go to HTCDEV.COM and sign in, click on unlock bootloader > get started. (Or click here http://www.htcdev.com/bootloader/) make sure you agree to any terms and conditions and licence agreements. Select your device. Or click ‘All Other Supported Models’ from the dropdown menu. Proceed to step one. (make sure to accept the legal terms)
  4. You should now be at the unlock instructions (here) and scroll to set 4, download the binary’s for your system, (for my case windows) and save them to a file on your desktop called ‘fastboot’ (or you could use  a similar name)
  5. navigate to where you installed the android sdk tools, then go into the /platform-tools folder, and copy adb.exe, AdbWinApi.dll and AdbWinUsbApi.dll, these are usually together and copy them to your ‘fastboot’ folder. See below
    adbNow you need to add the binary file called ‘fastboot.exe’ that you extracted from the zip file in step 4.
    fastboot exe
  6. You now have all the files necessary to get your fastboot code. now press the WIN + R key on your keyboard and type ‘cmd’ in the run box then press ok, then navigate to where the fastboot file is located. for example if fastboot is located on your desktop then type: (remembering to replace ‘yourname’ with the name of the user)
    cd /users/yourname/desktop/fastboot
  7. Now you are at the correct location, you need to power down your phone, press and hold the volume down button, then while still holing that button down, press the power button, you should see a white screen with a list of options, navigate to the ‘fastboot’ option (if your device boots normally you need to go to settings > power > fast boot and deselect the checkbox for fastboot as I did). Select it using the power button, plug your phone into your computer and you should see ‘FASTBOOT USB’ highlighted, in the cmd window you created, type ‘fastboot oem get_identifier_token‘ as specified by this page on the htcdev website. You should see an ‘identifier device token’ (If you see <waiting for device> you have not connected your phone to the computer, or you have not got adb.exe and it’s dll’s in the same folder with fastboot.exe) you need to right click and select mark, click on the left arrows of ‘Identifier Token Start’ and then SHIFT + CLICK the right arrows of ‘Identifier Token End’ and right click to place them in your clipboard, then paste the code into htcdev’s box, on page 2. Be sure to include the device token identifiers. (In my example the token is removed) Include the yellow text and token
  8. You should then receive an email with an Unlock_code.bin attachment, place that in your fastboot directory where you keep adb.exe and fastboot.exe and in the command window type ‘fastboot flash unlocktoken Unlock_code.bin‘ to unlock your device, you will then have to operate your phone to select yes to unlock bootloader, be sure to use the volume keys to move to yes and the power key to select. Your device will now return to ‘factory’ settings. (Note it takes a couple minutes to reboot)
  9. Use HTC backup to restore your phone. Or one of your custom apps that you selected at the start of the tutorial.
  10. You have now unlocked bootloader.

Note: If you have not been able to unlock the bootloader on my tutorial, try following HTCdev’s tutorial.

 

Congratulations! you have now unlocked bootloader on your device! I have used this method to unlock my HTC Desire 610, (using the ‘All Other Supported Models’ dropdown at the start of HTCDev’s website).

If you want to root your HTC, click here

Bigger, Better, Faster, Stronger?

Were back! and were faster than ever, well over 140% faster to be precise, out with Xampp on windows, in with Ubuntu Webmin!

Wait… Webmin isn’t that taboo? Well, yes, it is but its got loads of features and is really easy to do otherwise time consuming tasks that could take minutes and turn that into a couple of seconds, for example, adding a virtual host to apache2 would require FTP and a bit of nifty .txt editing, but with webmin, its a couple of clicks away, practical in the long run, but it does have it’s drawbacks.

Webmin with Bootstrap 3 theme.

 

Plus webmin is easy to use and quick to configure, so Ill be doing a couple tutorials on that soon enough!

How to Configure Apache to use Virtual Hosts

Using Apache is Good, but for one website is limiting its potential you can create multiple websites, domains and sub-domains with Apache, see below.

 

 

First you need to stop your server, you can do this on lunix by entering
[box type=”shadow”] $ sudo /etc/init.d/apache2 stop [/box]

into your terminal, this allows you to make changes to files in your server without breaking it, for windows you need to stop Apache using Xammp, see below.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Now Enable Mod_log_config browse here

[box type=”shadow”]xamppapacheconf[/box]

and in httpd.conf remove the # from this line

[box type=”shadow”]#LoadModule log_config_module modules/mod_log_config.so[/box]

to look like this

[box type=”shadow”]LoadModule log_config_module modules/mod_log_config.so[/box]

 

next using an FTP program or other method, go to your website’s root directory such as

[box type=”shadow”]/home/*/public_html/cgi-bin/[/box]

 

Or for windows

[box type=”shadow”]C:xampphtdocs[/box]

This is the base of your web server, and probably where your Index.html is located, create two folders, Domains and Subdomains, this is where your domains will be stored. See below

Domains, Subdomains

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

In Domains, Place the dome of your website, replacing dots with hyphens like so

Domains, if

 

 

 

(Also add any other websites that you plan to host on the server)

Then copy the data that was in your root of the server into the domain folder on the server like this

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

then paste  into your domain folder like this

 

Paste

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

So your Server should now have the ‘root’ of the server in

[box type=”shadow”]WEBROOTDomainsinfinityflame-co-ukindex.html[/box]

or subsequent folders in Linux.

now you need to redirect traffic from your website to the correct folder, this is done with virtual Hosts’s, and is also how you add sub domains see below

browse to your Apache installation folder and go to httpd-vhosts.conf

[box type=”shadow”]apacheconfextrahttpd-vhosts.conf[/box]

 

and at the bottom add the following code replaceing my domain, with yours.

now test the website, start Apache and browse to your domain, you should see your site as you did before, you have now configured your website to use Virtual Hosts

now you need to add other domains and subdomains, See Here